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Scotland’s rocks and landforms provide a range of benefits and help us to understand how the Earth has evolved. Our protected Earth science features are almost all in good condition, but we know little about the state of rocks and landforms outside protected sites.
State: Good - high agreement, low evidence
Trend: Stable/declining - high agreement, low evidence
There is an explanation of the diagram and further information on how we carried out the assessments on the summary pages.
Scotland has a remarkable diversity of rocks and landforms (geology and geomorphology), created by natural processes over the last 3 billion years.
Rocks and landforms are part of Scotland’s rich geodiversity – the variety of rocks, minerals, fossils, landforms, sediments and soils, and the natural processes that form and alter them (known as geomorphological processes).
The geodiversity found across Scotland, including its sea bed, has led to many globally significant discoveries about how the Earth, and life on it, has evolved. Geodiversity also supports biodiversity, providing the foundation on which plants, animals and humans live.
The distribution of rocks and landforms has shaped human activity in Scotland, influencing land use, settlement sites, water sources and architectural style. Scotland’s geodiversity is also the foundation of our varied landscapes and spectacular scenery that today attracts visitors from home and abroad, and provides the background for many recreational pursuits. Additionally, geology provides valuable resources, such as coal, oil and metal ores, which continue to be important to Scotland’s economy.
Rocks and landforms, therefore, contribute a wide range of ecosystem services, providing important economic, social and environmental benefits.
Many rocks and landforms are unique and, having formed over very long periods, are effectively irreplaceable. Therefore, appropriate protection and conservation measures must be put in place so that they continue to provide benefits in future.
Scotland is made up of a wide variety of rocks and sediments of different ages including:
Scotland’s landforms have been shaped over time by water, wind, waves, ice and landslides.
Our landforms are still evolving. Water, wind, waves, and freeze-thaw weathering, continually shape the land and coast. Minor earthquakes occasionally shake the ground, and landslides and flooding rivers periodically alter the landscape.
Flooding and changes in the course of river channels are most characteristic of Highland rivers. Lowland rivers also flood, but their channels are generally more stable. The River Tay discharges the largest volume of water of any British river and, along with other large rivers, carries significant amounts of sediment out to the coast.
Scotland’s coasts are made up of 70% rocks and cliffs (hard coasts); 29% gravels, sand and silts (soft coasts); and less than 1% harbours and sea walls. Seventy-five per cent of our coasts are broadly stable in terms of sediment deposition and erosion. Of the remaining 25%, sediment is being added to 8% and lost from 12%. There are no data for 5%.
Scotland is experiencing sea-level rise, and projections suggest that this will continue at an increased rate over the next few decades. There is evidence that key coastal processes are also changing more rapidly than they did in the last century. Additionally, coastal sediment supply is at an all-time low, partly due to hard riverbank and coastal defences that prevent the erosion of fresh sand and gravel.
Scotland has a long history of minor earthquakes. The earliest recorded occurred in the 13th century, and the largest, measuring 5.2 on the Richter local magnitude scale, was on 28 November 1880 in Argyll. In 2013, 46 earthquakes, with magnitudes between 0.4 and 2.9 on the Richter local magnitude scale, were detected in Scotland and surrounding waters.
Many recent landslides on steep slopes have been initiated during prolonged or extreme rainfall. Old landslides can also be reactivated during extreme rainfall, sometimes because the slope has been made unstable due to undercutting by rivers, coastal erosion or even human excavation of the slope. Recent landslides reported in the news include those affecting the A83 at the Rest and Be Thankful in Argyll.
Scotland’s protected Earth science features are mostly in good condition or being managed to return them to good condition. There are no data available on the state of rocks and landforms outside protected sites.
The principal method of protecting a geological feature or landform of national or international importance is through notification within a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).
There are around 895 important rock and landform sites in Scotland (identified by the Geological Conservation Review, GCR). Around 75% of these are protected as notified Earth science features in SSSIs, and their condition is monitored under Scottish Natural Heritage’s (SNH’s) Site Condition Monitoring (SCM) programme, which was initiated in 1998. For SCM assessment, the following are considered damaging to Earth science features.
The SCM programme shows that by February 2014:
The condition of Scotland’s geodiversity not protected in SSSIs is not routinely monitored. Therefore, there is not enough information to make an accurate assessment of its overall state. However, expert opinion and anecdotal evidence indicates that some aspects of our geodiversity are improving while others are declining, and suggests an overall state of good with an overall trend of ‘stable or declining’.
There is no monitoring of the many benefits that rocks and landforms provide, nor of how these benefits may be affected by the many pressures on them. While locally there have been devastating impacts on geodiversity, these are not thought to be sufficiently widespread at present to influence the overall benefit that Scotland’s rocks and landforms provide.
Loss and damage to rocks and landforms leads to the loss or reduction of the benefits they provide. This can include:
Urban and rural development, changes in land use and demand for resources can all put pressure on our rocks and landforms. Some activities that put pressure on our geodiversity may also be beneficial. For example, road cuttings can damage rock outcrops and sediments, but may also provide new evidence of how the area evolved by exposing new rock or sediment sections. In contrast, some activities that are generally considered good for the environment, such as river restoration schemes, may damage our geodiversity if they are not appropriately planned.
Global processes, such as climate change and rising sea levels, can also damage rocks and landforms (e.g. through accelerated coastal or river erosion, more frequent landslides and flooding), as can measures put in place to prevent such direct impacts (e.g. flood-prevention schemes). These changes may also have economic and social consequences. For example:
The severity of these consequences can be reduced if they are taken into account during the planning process.
The main pressures on notified Earth science features as recorded by SNH’s SCM programme are:
Other recorded pressures include the impacts of climate change (e.g. warmer winters affecting the formation of freeze-thaw features) and damaging activities permitted for overriding reasons such as public safety (e.g. safety netting permanently obscuring important rock features but necessary to avoid rock-fall). In these latter cases, damage to rocks and landforms can often be minimised with careful planning.
It is likely that similar pressures apply to rocks and landforms outside SSSIs as those in SSSIs. However, legislation only provides limited protection to geodiversity outside SSSIs for the following activities:
Therefore, our geodiversity resource outside SSSIs will experience pressure from these activities.
Most of our documented nationally and internationally important geodiversity is protected through ‘protected sites’ legislation. Geodiversity conservation is also promoted through Scotland’s Geodiversity Charter, codes of good practice, and action plans that encourage good management of Scotland’s rocks and landforms, now and in the future.
Despite its importance, geodiversity does not have as high a profile as biodiversity. No international legislation covers geodiversity.
Published by the Scottish Government in June 2012, Scotland’s Geodiversity Charter encourages everyone to work together to raise awareness of, and manage, Scotland’s geodiversity; and to ensure its better integration into policy and guidance to meet Scotland’s economic, social, cultural and environmental needs.
SSSIs are the main statutory mechanism for protecting rocks and landforms in Scotland. The total number of Earth science features in SSSIs changes over time; features are added or removed for reasons such as scientific review, update of SSSI citations, and the total destruction of features. In February 2014 there were 651 notified Earth science features in Scottish SSSIs. This represents only a small fraction of the national resource, however, and there is currently no programme to incorporate the remaining 200 or so nationally and internationally important Earth science sites into the SSSI network.
Geoparks, national parks, National Nature Reserves and local nature conservation sites also help protect rocks and landforms and, in future, marine protected areas (MPAs) will help protect important sea-bed features.
The Scottish Fossil Code, published in 2008, aims to help protect Scotland’s fossils while encouraging public interest and responsible use. Early indications are that most people follow the code when at a fossil site. However, few people ask permission to visit sites or collect fossils, and three incidences of reckless damage have been recorded since the code was published.
The Scottish Core Code, published in 2011 to combat the growing problem of core holes defacing rock outcrops, provides guidance on responsible and environmentally-acceptable rock coring.
At a UK level, the UK Geodiversity Action Plan (UKGAP) provides a broad framework for geological conservation and related activities.
In Scotland, the following areas have completed geodiversity audits:
An audit of Dumfries and Galloway is ongoing.
As yet there are very few local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs) in Scotland. The City of Edinburgh Council has an LGAP within its local biodiversity action plan; West Lothian has a draft LGAP; and both our national parks have committed, in their current park plans, to produce an LGAP.
In cases where rock and landform features may be affected by development, extraction, landfill, landscape restoration or other activities, early communication between all interested parties can help ensure that rocks and landforms are recognised and appropriately incorporated.
Managing active landforms, such as rivers and coasts, appropriately is likely to become increasingly challenging with the prospect of more frequent flooding and rising sea levels (see the National Flood Risk Assessment and draft National Marine Plan for Scotland). Building on flood plains is likely to become less viable as the cost of protecting such developments increases. Demand is also increasing for adaptive management to reduce the cost of protecting developments vulnerable to flooding.